The Origin and Development of Electric Resistance Welded Pipe

The seamless welded pipe production technology was invented in Germany, and the technology since then is mainly in Germany. The United States is a pioneer in the development of electric resistance welded pipe (ERW welded pipe) production technology. Since its birth, there have been major technological advances almost every ten years. During this period, the United States has always been the protagonist of technological progress. Other countries can only look forward to the project and adopt the method of introducing technology. American Elihu Thomson invented the application of resistance heating to welding metals. Around 1900, a large number of pipe making methods based on the Thomson principle appeared. Several typical methods were: the method invented by the American Standard Welding Company; the method invented by the German R. Kronenberg; the method invented by the Norwegian Soennichsen and the lap resistance law. Although these methods quickly disappeared, they provided the possibility for people to use resistance energy to weld steel pipes and pointed out the future development direction.

Elihu Thomson (1853-1937) was born in England and was an electrical engineer with outstanding ability. In 1892, he and Edison founded the world-famous General Electric Company. It was this electrical engineer who invented the method of welding using resistance heat (Joule heat Q=I2R). Thomson has obtained nearly 700 patents in his lifetime, including not only AC motors and transformers, but also a variety of electric welding methods, mainly involving flash butt welding, spot welding or lap welding of steel plates, wires, bars, and steel pipes. But these None of the patents directly relates to today’s electric resistance welded steel pipe process. Nevertheless, we should see Thomson’s contribution to the origin of resistance welded pipes, because the basic technologies and devices required at the beginning of the birth of high-frequency steel pipes are covered in its patents.

In 1900, the Standard Welding Company of Cleveland, Ohio, combined electric resistance welding technology with high-frequency steel pipe technology and obtained a patent. The process steps of this patent include: first forming a steel pipe with an open welded seam, and then applying current to the edges of the electrode rods in contact with the two edges, and at the same time forming butt welding of the heated edges of the other squeeze rollers.

The key point of this patent is the distance between the center of the electrode roll and the center of the squeeze roll. This distance must be set correctly to offset the adverse effects of frequency. Thomson and his partners designed a unit based on this patent, which can produce thin-walled, small-diameter steel pipes for bicycle frames. This is the earliest commercial electric resistance welded steel pipe product.

Subsequently, similar methods were adopted in Germany to produce electric resistance welded pipes. The first was Rudolf Kronenberg of Kronprinz. He successfully converted the brazing of bicycle rims into electric resistance welding, and based on his experience in rim forming and transformer production, he established a high-frequency steel tube unit similar to Standard Welding. Before World War I, the steel pipe factory was producing frames for bicycles. Since then, a number of production lines using alternating current to produce high-frequency steel pipes have been established in the United States and Germany.

Electric resistance welded pipe originated in the 1890s. What is interesting is that there have been major technological advances almost every 10 years since its birth. The early development of electric resistance welded pipe can be roughly divided into five stages: the origin stage, the commercial application stage, the multi-frequency stage, the intermediate frequency conversion stage and the high frequency stage.

As a historical review, the text focuses on the events before the 1880s. Since then, electric resistance welded pipe production technology has entered a relatively stable stage of development, but significant technological progress has been made in coil raw materials, welding technology, automatic control technology, information management, and non-destructive testing.

Since the development of electric resistance welded pipe, it has become the largest steel pipe variety, surpassing seamless steel pipe in the world, and is used in various fields.

Tricks used by Chefs that will simplify your life

It doesn’t matter if it is a professional chef in his elegant chef coat or a trainee cook in his chef apron, they all do it. However, we too can learn a thing or two from these chefs to make our lives in our home kitchens much easier.

These hacks include:

Tenderizing beef – Marinade the beef in mayonnaise before cooking in order to make it softer.
Leftover maize – Leftover maize can be used in salads by cutting the grains with a sharp knife.
Separating egg yolks – Using a plastic bottle you can easily separate egg yolks from the whites.
Saving an oversalted soup – Dipping a tablespoon with a sugar cube on it into the soup and repeating it until the oversaltiness of the soup is settled.
Mashed potatoes and milk – Cold milk cause mashed potatoes to become grey in color. The best is to use hot milk to give the potatoes a creamy look.
Preserving the flavor and freshness of a dish – Heat the plate when serving a hot dish and cool them before serving a cold dish to keep the food fresh and flavorful.
Freezing wine – Freeze wine in an ice cube maker to preserve them for using in your cooking.
Keeping vegetables and greens fresh – Keep green vegetables and greens fresh for longer by wrapping them in foil before storing them.
Reheating pizza – Reheating pizza in a saucepan rather than baking it again retains the flavor of the pizza.
Avocados – Keep cut avocados fresh and green by sprinkling apple vinegar in them and storing them with cut onions.
Keeping bread fresh – Keep a piece of cut apple in the bread box to keep bread fresh for longer.

Things that will drive your waiter crazy

It is nice being served by pleasant and smiling servers and waiters in their dashing uniforms and server aprons, when we visit a restaurant for a meal. They are efficient and always willing to please, by helping us with our requests, and sometimes keeping small tools and utensils in their waist apron pockets in order to give us quick assistance.

However, there are certain instances when we actually drive these restaurant servers crazy with our requests and behavior. These include:

Not leaving a tip – Tips are a way in which servers and wait staff earn some extra money, and it is a way of showing our appreciation for the service they have given us. It is rather disappointing to serve a guest throughout the night and not get a tip.
Walking in just before closing time – Walking into a restaurant a few minutes before closing time means that your server has to work extra time until you finish, and don’t get a chance to leave work on time.
Fighting over who pays the bill – Servers find it very annoying when people pounce on them to grab the bill and then start fighting about who pays it.
Bad jokes – Telling bad jokes to a hard-working server can really be annoying for them.
Uncontrollable children – Children who treat a restaurant like a playground are a disaster waiting to happen, especially with servers and waiters running around carrying heavily laden trays of food and drinks.
Being on the phone – Servers hate it when they come to take your order and you are on the phone. Again, they have many tables to serve and wait on, not just yours, so it would be nice to be a little more considerate.
Asking for food that is not on the menu – Asking for things that are not on the menu puts servers and other staff in a dilemma about how to charge you for it.

The Ideal 21st Birthday Present

This coming September is my boyfriend’s 21st birthday. We’ve been together for 3 years and we both feel quite strongly about each other. I finished university this year and David finishes next year. Which is when we plan on working and travelling around South America. We’re both fairly adventurous types and have been on various charity and learning travels throughout our lives. For our South America trip he’s even taken Spanish as an additional module so he feels better prepared for our travel.

He’s such an accomplished person that I struggled to think what I could get him as a present for the big 2 1. Which was when the idea hit me. A watch! Simple, functional, stylish and most importantly I knew he was thinking of getting one after he’d lost his grandfather’s watch. I knew it wasn’t possible to replace it and besides I wanted to create my own memories with my present which was how I ended up looking at a range of Citizen, Rotary, Guess and Ice Watches. All of which looked incredibly impressive, but I felt it had to best suit David.

In the end I went with my gut, the watch that I thought had the most features that ticked off all the uses David would need from a watch. It even told the time!

I chose a Citizen’s Calibre 2100 Chronograph Eco Drive Watch. Quite a mouthful that packs an equal punch. It’s a stainless steel watch that’s water resistant, ideal for when he decides to go snorkelling or diving off Chile. It also comes with a 5 year guarantee that with Jim, I know would come in handy. The watch itself is perfect for Jim as it is multi purpose with several sub dials that can measure time in different ways including the basic stopwatch.

I think personally the best thing about it is that it looks timeless and could easily take him from day to night.


I can’t wait to give David his 21st birthday present. I know that he will be thrilled with his Citizen Watch and all the additional ‘toys’ within it. It’s the perfect gift as he turns 21 and it’s the perfect gift for when he’s travelling. If not to tell the time then at the very least to remember me by!

Martyn Bramley invites you to take some time out and think about treating yourself to a new watch!

Buying from Watch-Site is easy. We are official retailers for all of the brands listed on our site so you can be sure that each product is 100% genuine, competitively priced and comes with an approved manufacturers guarantee.

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